Upon leaving the gates, "far away" where the Danube forms its strongest and largest meander with its strength - where it is narrowest. Where it reminds with its charm of the sea. Where it is undoubtedly the most beautiful. This is where we hide the jewel tucked in just near the coast, on waves, in the embrace of history and tradition. Jewel on the Danube - Kladovo. Kladovo is located in the easternmost part of Serbia in the Bor District and represents the administrative, cultural and economic center of a larger area known as „the Key“, named after a large meander that forms the Danube River after its exit from the Djerdap Gorge, covering about 63,000 hectares. A picturesque town on the right bank of the Danube, in which the last census lives about 24,000 inhabitants, is located only 9 km downstream of the largest hydrotechnical structure on the Danube - hydroelectric power plant Djerdap. In the east and northeast of the Danube, it represents the border, not only municipalities, but also Serbia with Romania, while the Slatina River in the south and southwest, or Miroč Mountain in the northwest, represents the border with the municipalities of Negotin and Majdanpek. The branched hydrographic network with the Danube, the flatland-terraced terrain near the Danube bank and the mountain-mountainous regions, whose maximum altitude is about 500 meters, is the main physical and geographical characteristics of the municipality. The climate in these areas is continental, with specific elements influenced by the water of the Danubian reservoirs of Djerdap 1 and 2, which provides the most favorable conditions for the development of tourism, as well as a pleasant atmosphere for the stay of numerous visitors. Numerous natural rarities and beauties (Danube and National Park Đerdap), cultural and historical heritage (the remains of Trajan's Bridge and Trajan's table, Roman castle Diana, fortress Fetislam and others) and created values (HPP Djerdap) are just a part of the tourist attractions of Kladovo .
Kladovo today - a description of the city
The natural position of the city and the accelerated economic development of the last decades have contributed to the fact that Kladovo, once a small town, has been modernly shaped and become a famous tourist center of the region Djerdap. Quite distant from the big city centers, it simply "makes you" forget about a boring everyday life and a busy lifestyle and tells you to indulge in and enjoy the many benefits offered by this most beautiful little place. A town full of greenery and surrounded by water, Kladovo leaves the impression of the coastal city. In the very heart of the city, the promenade of the Old Town, the capital of the city events, extends over to many restaurants, pizzerias, clubs, shops and the Tourist Information Center, with an art gallery and a souvenir shop. The trade and handicraft center in Kladovo, known as the "čaršija", originated in the first half of the 19th century by relocating trade shops, mehana’s and other facilities from locations near Fetislam to free areas across the Danube. As many buildings in the "quarter" retain the architectural and architectural characteristics of the time in which they were created, this part of the city is protected as a cultural place. This is a place where you can taste the best fish soup and taste a recognizable Kladovo brand that makes the whole region proud, white wine - the Soul of the Danube. Near the promenade there is a large city park with a children's town, a promenade that stretches around the city lake with an enchanting geyser. In the immediate vicinity of the park, between the two city lakes, the magnificent sports and recreation center "Jezero" is dominantly equipped and equipped for all kinds of great sport events. In the center of Kladovo, the Orthodox spiritual temple rises, the church of Sv. Djordje, built in the 19th century, and in its vicinity is the Archaeological Museum which has a collection of important exhibits that tell about the past of the Kladovo region. At this place begins the Danube promenade, with enchanting scenes of nature and greenery literally at every step. Cultural events in the city are taken care of by the Center for Culture, which includes the Youth Center and the Cultural Center with a library, a gallery and a large hall for cinema projections, theater and concert performances, with all conditions for organizing professional seminars, conferences and congress meetings. A kilometer long promenade on the Danubian Quay, which is further connected to the city beach, is a favorite place for locals in the summer months. As an alternative to holidays on the seashore, it offers an almost identical experience. The immediate proximity of the two hotels and several catering facilities, complete equipment with showers and toilets make this content even more comfortable and attractive.
Kladovo Municipality is a true treasure of natural heritage and wealth. Kladovo brings you into the magical world of unreal beauty and natural rarities. The Djerdap region has always been a natural strategic place of great importance, as evidenced by numerous cultural monuments from our historical past. The Danube River, which for many millions of years has just crossed the way through the high and steep cliffs of the Carpathian Mountains, made the river and the surrounding area almost impenetrable. The powerful water forces, rapids, whirlpools in the region of Djerdap, created many troubles and unprecedented shipwrecks. Today, by building a hydroelectric and navigation giant on the Danube River, the river was ruined, but resulted in the loss of many old settlements, cultural and other sights that, due to the rise of the water level, remained permanently at the bottom of the big river. But this about 150 km long river flow still passes through the most spectacular landscape, splendidly separates and connects two shores, changing its width under the magnificent rocky cliffs of the most beautiful and largest Canyon in Europe.
Djerdap Canyon and National Park
Djerdap Canyon is the largest and longest peak in Europe, about 100 km long. In the Danube sector of the Djerdap Cliffs there are four sloping works - canyons, which are disassembled with appropriate extensions - basins. The valleys and valleys on the Danube are replaced by the following order: Golubac canyon, Ljupkovski canyon, canyon Miss Vir, Donji Milanovac canyon, canyon Big and Small kazan, Oršavski canyon and Sipski canyon, also known as Đerdap. In the western part of the municipality of Kladovo, on the surface of about 64 hectares, the National Park Djerdap, the largest national park in the country, is distinguished by its rich ecosystem and specific flora and fauna, relief phenomena and extremely valuable cultural monuments from prehistory to the present day. The Djerdap National Park is the area with the largest and oldest watercourse in Europe, the site of the largest natural and archaeological museum in the nature of Europe and the area with the highest biodiversity within an ecosystem. It represents one of the most beautiful geographical areas of Europe, with great opportunities for dealing with several types of tourism, hunting and fishing (in accordance with the rules of behavior in the national park), hiking, cycling, bird watching, etc. Via the road, on the Romanian side there is a nature reserve Porţile de Fier. The Danube on its way towards the Black Sea through the Carpathians broke the Djerdap canyon, forming a part of the border between Serbia and Romania. Due to its magnificent appearance, the Romanians call it "Parcul Natural Porţile de Fier", ie. The Iron Gate, while the name Djerdap derives from the Persian word "girdap" stitch translation means a vortex.
Certainly the most beautiful and exciting sector on the entire Danube waterway of the canyon includes the 19 km long landscape of Caldron, a place of magical sight-points with the beauty of breath - where the Danube is narrowest (only 140m), Where is the deepest (even 90m). Prior to the construction of the HPP "Djerdap", the deep waters of Kazan mourned the moruns and sturgeons that came from the Black Sea, whose eggs were used to produce the famous Kladovo’s caviar, a world-famous delicacy of top quality. After the construction of the Djerdap power plants, moruns and sturgeons have almost completely disappeared because their road from the Black Sea to natural jams in Djerdap Canyon has been cut off, and the famous Kladovo’s brand has stopped production. In the heart of Đerdap, there is a natural haven Hajdučka vodenica under Mali Štrpbac in Caldron. The site where archaeological excavations found necropolises from the Mesolithic and Iron Age, as well as the remains of the fortification from the Late Antique period, testify to its inhabitation until the 15th century. Today it is a place of frequent gatherings of tourists and locals, especially lovers of sport fishing and camping.
Blederia waterfall is an exceptional natural attraction near the village of Reka, about 15 km from Kladovo. River Blederia springs at 190 meters above sea level and flows to the southeast. Water, which is vertical, from a height of about 7 m, after overflowing over the Bigrene crate, collapses in the form of a water curtain in a big tub, a large source or a small lake, is turquoise green. On the side of the big waterfall there is another small one, which during the summer, when the river decreases its water capacity, it disappears, but it always has its spring, when the river is rich in water and flows up to hundreds of meters per second. Above the waterfall, at about 2 km distance to the right, there are sources of subtermal water with a temperature of 17c. An interesting piece of information for this region is that this was the shortcut of the Roman road from Poreč, through Miroč to the Danube and Ključ, while Trajan did not break the way through Kazan. In addition, in the village of Reka there is the only waterfall in this region that is still in operation. The road that leads to the waterfall is partly asphalt, partly macadamically and adequately marked with tourist signaling and signposts. The location is a very attractive and favorite picnic area for local residents, as well as domestic and foreign tourists.
Oasis of birds
The location of the Mala Vrbica’s fishpond, in the attic of the village of Mala Vrbica, since 2000 has the status of an IBA area and is one of the most important and richest sites in this part of Serbia. IBA area "Pond Mala Vrbica" occupies 2,000 ha and represents a steppe lowland area. In the immediate vicinity there are Kladovo and the Danube River, as well as the stratified hills of wood and sand with very scarce vegetation. A part, once a large swamp complex, is preserved while the rest is turned into a pond. Due to the construction of the Djerdap II dam, spacious rats were formed between the river bank and the Danubian arable land. This water habitat is of special importance for the bird fauna - for nesting, sowing and wintering of birds on the Danube, standing waters of fishponds and Kostol mud. The two species that make up this area are significant „Belobrka čigra“ and „Pčelarica“. So far, 110 species of birds have been recorded, of which about 60 are nests. The site is accessible to visitors, and this area is particularly suitable for developing tourist movements that involve bird watching.
History of Kladovo
Due to its geographical position, the Municipality of Kladovo has always had a strategic and traffic significance. This is evidenced by numerous cultural monuments and rich historical heritage of the oldest civilizations that have left their mark in this area. The archaeological remains of the past and the discovery of the oldest prehistoric remains of the Lepenski Vir from the Neolithic Age show that this area was inhabited in prehistoric times. It talks about the rise of the oldest human habitat and the development of the first settlements on the shore of the Danube. The Danube road and shore has always had a military, economic and civilization characteristics. In this area, later, many civilizations that were mutually changing were developing, leaving behind tangible traces. The Great Empire Armies, the Roman Emperors and the medieval rulers were moving along the waterways of the river and its rivers, leaving behind the trace of their culture, customs and splendid building wonders and fortifications of that time.
Remains of the Roman Empire
The great rise of ancient times in the territory of today's territory of Kladovo municipality testifies the richness of the monuments and remains of the Roman past in the conquering wars that the Romans began at the end of the first century.
During his visit to Dacan (the founders of the territory of present-day Romania), the Roman Emperor Trajan built the road (Via Traiana) through the Djerdap Canyon at the 103rd .a.c the place where he built the bridge on the Danube (Trajan's Bridge). In honor of the great feats of the Roman Empire, led by emperor Trajan, a plaque with an inscription bearing two winged geniuses, known as Trajan's table, was erected in the Djerdap Canyon. Trajan's board represents a testimony, a symbol of the power and glory of Emperor Trajan. On the board there is a carved text in Latin, which means: "IMPERATOR CEZAR, DIVINE NERVE’S SON, NERVA, TRAJAN AUGUST GERMANIC, SUPREME PRIST, PROVIDER OF THE PEOPLE FOR THE FOURTH TIME, CONQUERED MOUNTAIN AND DANUBE ROCKS, BUILT THIS ROAD." From the previous six , only four lines of inscriptions have been preserved, which testify to Trajan's construction of the road near the Danube. After the construction of HPP "Djerdap", the Roman road was submerged, and it was decided that the Trajan's board was cut and erected 50 m higher than the original location. Today, the board is visible exclusively from the Danube, specifically vessels using the Danube waterway.
The magnificent monument of Roman construction and the architectural wonder of that time, the Trajan Bridge, was built in just two years (between the 103rd and 105th years of the new era) and represents the architectural feat of the famous architect Aplodor from Damansk. The Trajan’s Bridge was imposing heights (about 1,500 Roman feet or 45 m), the length of the ports of 1,133.90 m, and connected the two opposite shores of the Roman provinces of Upper Mezia (today's Kladovo) and the newly formed Dacia (the territory of today's Romania). Imperial Trajan shortly after the completion of the bridge construction in 105th year, forced his legions and crossed the bridge and began the military conquest of the then Dacia. In the function of his defense, simultaneously with the construction of the bridge, the auxiliary camps Pontes on the right and Dorbet (Romania) on the left bank of the Danube were erected. The bridge had a total of 32 pillars, and at the beginning and end of the large bridge pillar, bronze Trajan's statues were placed. In the middle of the last century, the head of one of the statues was found and handed over to the museum in Belgrade. The remains of 16 pillars were located in 1932, and half a century later there were 12 pillars, while 4 probably in the meantime took the Danube water. During the reign of Trajan's successor, Hadrian, the bridge was demolished, it is believed to prevent the penetration of barbaric tribes from Eastern Europe. The remains of the Trajan Bridge are located near the village of Kostol and the best preserved part of the supporting pavement, 5 m high and 3.5 m wide.
Diana represents a military fort with a pier, erected on the plateau of the high rocky coast known as Karataš near the village of Novi Sip, 2 km downstream of the HPP "Djerdap". The construction of the earliest earthen-wooden fort is related to the arrival of the first formations on the Danube in the early nineteenth century. Stone fortification was created during the construction activity of Emperor Trajan. For six centuries, Diana had a significant economic center with its port and harbor. The name Diana originates in a sanctuary dedicated to the homonymous goddess of hunting, and the marble relief with the representation of this goddess is exhibited in the Museum of Đerdap. Inside the fortress, a building with apse, military barracks and other buildings was discovered, and in the central part remains of the principle with portico. The remains of a significant civilian settlement were found around the fortress, mentioned by the Venetian sources as the town of Zanes. On the shore there were discovered temples dedicated to god Neptune, as well as a temple with stone altar Jupiter Dolihen, which are exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Đerdap.
Transdierna’s fort in Tekija, which played an important role in the Roman wars with Dacians (late I and early II centuries). It was built in the 104th year of a new era, with dimensions of castle 100 mx 84 m. Archaeological investigations found the remains of castellas, as well as many personal items of soldiers and inhabitants (money, buttons, earrings, weapons ...) that speak of the then high living standard of Roman soldiers at the border and insight into the socio-economic circumstances that ruled at the border of Mezia.
Egeta represents the remains of the Roman fort in place Brza Palanka, which due to its geographical location is seen as a strategic point with a great military significance. It was a base with three military camps and a civilian settlement. In one of the castels, a small shrine was discovered, in which four sculptures and the head of Jupiter Dolihen were found (from the end of the second and the beginning of the third century). Egeta did not experience the fate of other Roman cities, when barbarians crossed the Danube, and her fortifications remained and were renewed even after the fall of the Roman Empire.
Remains of the Turkish Empire
They say that the Đerdap Canyon starts with one (Golubac fortress) and ends with another fortress. At the very entrance to the city, about 300 m west of the center of Kladovo, there is a magnificent medieval fortress Fetislam (translated "Victory of Islam"), which the Turks erected after the conquest of these parts of Serbia. It was built at a strategically important point from which the Turks were easily able to control navigation on the Danube. Fetislam consists of the Great Fortress and the Small City within it. The small town was an artillery base protected by circular towers and was built in 1524 during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. The present form of Fetislam gets at the beginning of the 19th century during the march of Mahmoud II, whose marble slabs, in the glory of the sultan, are placed on the gates leading into the fortress. The fortress had three gates, decorated with honorary inscriptions. In its turbulent history, the fortress often changed owners. Fetislam is one of the six Serbian fortresses (Belgrade, Smederevo, Šabac, Uzice, Soko and Kladovo), which was handed over to the Serbs on April 26, 1867, whereby the Turks definitely left these premises. That day is marked in Kladovo as Municipality Day. Today, the fortress is a cultural and historical monument, a favorite place for walking, recreation and organizing various sports events and activities. The fortress consists of an open amphitheater and a sports center with a complex of terrains for small and large sports.
Ada Kale represents the island fort and had a great strategic significance at Djerdap in the era of the Romans. It was located only a few kilometers upstream of the current dam of the HPP "Djerdap I" and it was 1,750 m long and 500 m wide for a long time. During the tumultuous history, they changed their owners, and the last inhabitants were mostly Turks. The Muslim animal maintained its customs and culture on the island. They were engaged in manufaktorno production of ratluk, roses, processing of tobacco, matches, fig and olive products. With the construction of the Djerdap I HPP in 1971 and the sinking of the island, the Turks were moved to their own quarters and the fortress was relocated to the Romanian island of Šimian, downstream of the remains of the Trajan Bridge. During Karadjordje, Ada Kale was an important administrative center on the Danube. In the history of the island, the island remained recorded as a place of special importance, because in 1804, during the First Serbian uprising, four Belgrade dahias were captured and executed.
Monument and industrial heritage
Prior to the construction of the dam, Kazan was once the most dramatic natural landscape of the entire Danube and the most dangerous for navigation in the old river regime. The difficult navigation conditions, at that time, were regulated by a specific system of river traffic control and control in the form of signaling stations. A system of six signal stations on both banks of the Danube, served as a unique traffic signal on the Danube, a raised or lowered balloon was a sign to the captains to freely pass or wait for passage by boat from the opposite direction. Today, the so-called "balloon" stations are preserved and play the role of the monumental infrastructure heritage, which is under the protection of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments. In the balloon station "Pena", there is an artistic studio of local artist Radisav Trkulja, and the former balloon station "Varnica" was a temporary information center of the region with a so-called tourist reception and accompanying catering facility. Today they are out of function.
From Trajan to this day, more precisely until 1964, on the banks of the Danube no more bold and extensive works were undertaken than those started by the Yugoslavian and Romanian non-citizens. The hydropower and navigation system "Djerdap I" was built in cooperation with the neighboring Republic of Romania and since 1972 it produces a significant part of the electricity for the needs of our country. The largest hydrotechnical structure on the Danube, with a total length of 1,278 m, is completely symmetrical and designed so that each country (Serbia and Romania) has the same parts of the main facility that they maintain and use in accordance with the agreement and conventions on construction and exploitation. Each side disposes of one power plant, a ship's lock and seven overflow fields of a total of fourteen, as there are in the common overhead guard. The building's symmetry is the state border. Two power plants are interconnected, so in case of need, power plants on the Serbian side can supply electricity to the network on the Romanian side and the other way around. HPP "Djerdap I" represents a monumental building, which besides its basic role - electricity generation, regulates traffic by the Danube „system of the trains“. It represents the border crossing and connects the Republic of Serbia with the Republic of Romania. On the tourist map of the Municipality of Kladovo, this hydro-electric and navigational giant is an exceptional and unique attraction for tourist visits and tours. If you have not already been able to visit Kladovo, we warmly invite you to do this and enjoy this beautiful, gorgeous city.